"A classification system used to categorise humans into distinct populations or groups by anatomical, cultural, ethnic, genetic, geographical, historical, linguistic, religious, and/or social affiliation.”
Racism can be defined as:
“The belief that all members of each race possess characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races.”
When a group of people are labeled according to a certain religious belief or affiliation and their access to public services, jobs, livelihoods and social freedoms are denied or restricted on the basis of this belief or affiliation this is racism.
Is the CTA guilty of State Crimes?
In their 2001 paper entitled, "Toward a Victimology of State Crime", Kauzlarich, Matthews & Miller gave their working definition of victims of state crime as:
"Individuals or groups of individuals who have experienced economic, cultural, or physical harm, pain, exclusion, or exploitation because of tacit or explicit state actions or policies which violate law or generally defined human rights."
This working definition was drawn from an analysis of a wide range of academic literature on the subject of state crimes.
As they go on to say, "This definition, while somewhat broad, encapsulates most of the substance and spirit of the criminological literature on the varieties of state crime, and sets the stage for an inclusive typology of victimization."
In their actions of persecution and discrimination of Dorje Shugden practitioners it would appear that the CTA have breached articles 18, 19 & 21 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN UDHR).
Of the UN UDHR the UN say on their website, "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is generally agreed to be the foundation of international human rights law."
So if we conclude that the CTA have breached any articles of the UN UDHR we must conclude that their actions of discrimination against Dorje Shugden practitioners are a state crime, as defined specifically by Kauzlarich, Matthews & Miller (2001), and generally by the body of criminology research on state crimes.